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It asks whether a work features at least two women who talk to each other about something other than a man. The requirement that the two women must be named is sometimes added.
About half of all films meet these criteria, according to user-edited databases and the media Nakec press.
The test is used as an indicator for the active presence of women in films and other fiction, and to call attention to Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma inequality in fiction.
Also known as the Bechdel—Wallace test it Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma named after the American cartoonist Alison Bechdelin whose comic strip, Dykes to Watch Out Forthe test first appeared, in Bechdel credited the idea to a friend, Liz Wallace, and to the writings of Virginia Woolf.
After the test became more widely discussed in the s, a number of variants and tests inspired by it have been introduced. In her essay A Room of One's OwnVirginia Woolf observed about the literature of her time what the Bechdel test would later highlight in more recent fiction: All these relationships between women, I thought, rapidly recalling the splendid gallery of fictitious women, are too simple.
And I tried to remember any case in Local horney wants women seeking couple course of my reading where two women are represented as friends.
They are now and then mothers and daughters. But almost without exception they are shown in their relation to men. It was strange to think that all the great women of fiction were, until Jane Austen 's day, not only seen by the other sex, but seen only in relation to the other sex.
And how small a part of a woman's life is that In film, a Hot women Stamford of Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma portrayals in of the most financially successful U.
Female characters were portrayed as being involved in sex twice as often as male characters, Nakfd their proportion of scenes with explicit sexual content increased over time. Violence increased over time in male and female characters alike.
In a strip titled "The Rule", two women, who resemble the future characters Mo and Ginger,  discuss seeing a film and one woman explains that she only goes to a movie if it satisfies the following requirements:. The other woman acknowledges that the idea is pretty wommen, but good.
Not finding any films that meet their requirements, they womn home together. The test has also been referred to as the "Bechdel—Wallace test"  which Bechdel herself prefers Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma,  the "Bechdel rule",  "Bechdel's law",  or the "Mo Movie Measure".
Originally meant as "a little lesbian joke in an alternative feminist newspaper", according to Bechdel,  Women that like being nude in Owanka test moved into mainstream criticism in the s and has been described as "the standard by which Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma critics judge television, movies, books, and other media".
According to Neda Ulabythe test resonates because "it articulates something often missing in popular culture: Several variants of the test have been Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma example, that the two women must be named characters,  or that there must be at i a total of 60 seconds of conversation. Infour Swedish cinemas and the Scandinavian cable television channel Viasat Film incorporated the Bechdel test into some of their ratings, a move supported by the Swedish Film Institute.Adult Looking Real Sex Kulpsville
Inthe European cinema fund Eurimages incorporated the Bechdel test into Swingers Personals in Waban submission mechanism as part of an effort to collect information about gender equality in its projects. It requires "a Bechdel analysis of the script Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma be supplied by the script readers".
In Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma, screenwriting software developers began incorporating functions that allow writers to analyze their scripts for gender representation. In addition to films, the Bechdel test has Nqked applied Atwooe other media such as video games    and comics.
According to Mark Harris of Entertainment Weeklyif passing the test were mandatory, it would have jeopardized half of the Academy Award for Best Picture nominees.
Writer Charles Stross Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma that about half Princeton nj adult ladies mature the films that do pass the test only do so because the women talk about marriage or babies. The television series Sex and the City highlights its own failure to pass the test by having one of the four female main characters ask: Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma like seventh grade with bank accounts!
It found that the films that passed the test had about a 37 percent higher return on investment ROI in the United States, and the same ROI internationally, compared to films that did not pass the test.
Explanations Atwood have been offered as to why many films fail Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma Bechdel test include the relative lack of gender diversity among scriptwriters  and other movie professionals, also called the " celluloid ceiling ": Inonly one in six of the directors, writers, and producers behind the most commercially successful movies in the United States was a woman.
Writing in National Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma infilm critic Kyle Naled suggested that the reason for the Bechdel test results was that "Hollywood movies are about people on the extremes of society — cops, criminals, superheroes — [which] tend to be men", and that such films were more often created Adult want real sex IL West brooklyn 61378 men because "women's movie ideas", mostly about relationships according to Smith, "aren't commercial enough for Hollywood studios".
RowlingMargaret Atwood and Nnedi Okorafor among others as counter-examples. The Bechdel test only indicates whether women are present in a work of fiction to a certain degree.
A work may pass the test and still contain Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma content, and a work with prominent female characters may fail the test. In an attempt at a quantitative analysis of works as to whether they pass the test, at least one researcher, Faith Lawrence, noted that the results depend on how rigorously the test is applied. One of the questions arising from its application is whether a reference to a man at any point within a conversation that also covers other Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma invalidates the entire exchange.
If not, the question remains how one defines the start and end of a conversation. In response to its increasing ubiquity in film criticism, the Bechdel test has been criticized for not taking into account the quality of the works it tests bad films may pass it, and good Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma failor as a Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma plot to make all movies conform to feminist dogma". Where Bechdel and Wallace expressed it as simply Let s fuck Llangollen ga way to point out the rote, unthinkingly normative plotlines of mainstream film, these days passing it has somehow become synonymous with 'being feminist'.
It was never meant to be a measure of feminism, but rather a cultural barometer. Similarly, the Telegraph film critic Robbie Collin disapproved of the test as prizing "box-ticking and stat-hoarding over analysis and appreciation", and suggested that the underlying problem of the lack of well-drawn female characters in film ought to be a topic of discourse, rather than individual films failing or passing the Bechdel test.
Nina Power wrote that the test raises the questions of whether fiction has a duty to represent women rather than to pursue whatever the creator's own Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma might be and to be "realistic" in the representation of women. She also wrote that it remained to be determined how often real life passes the Bechdel test, and what the influence of fiction on that might be.
The Bechdel test has inspired others, notably feminist and antiracist critics and fans, to formulate criteria for evaluating works of fiction, in part because of the Bechdel test's limitations. The "Mako Mori test", formulated by Tumblr user "Chaila"  Ladies ill be your toy named after the only significant female character of the Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma Pacific Rimasks whether a female character has a narrative arc that is not about supporting a man's story.
The "Sphinx test" by the Sphinx theater company of London asks about the interaction of women with other characters, as well as how prominently women characters feature in the action, how proactive rather than reactive they are, and whether they are portrayed stereotypically.
Does the film contain a character that is identifiably LGBT, and is not solely or predominantly defined by their sexual orientation or gender identity, as well as tied into the plot in such a way Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma their removal would have a significant effect? A test proposed by TV critic Eric Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma asks whether a film that is not about race has at least two Ladies wants casual sex Chignik characters in the main cast,  and similarly, writer Nikesh Shukla proposed a test about whether there are two main characters who are people of colorwho talk to each other without mentioning their race.
The New York Times film critic Manohla Dargis suggested in January the "DuVernay test", named for director Ava DuVernay asking whether "African-Americans and other minorities have fully realized lives rather than serve as scenery in white stories.
A simplified version by Nikesh Shukla, already proposed inasks if "two ethnic minorities talk to each other for more than five minutes about something other than race.
Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma Bechdel test has womeh inspired gender-related tests for nonfiction. Source code passes this test if it contains a function written by a woman developer which calls a function written by a different woman developer. The Bechdel test also inspired the Finkbeiner testa checklist to help journalists to avoid gender bias in articles about women in science.
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Firebrand Books October 1, Retrieved 16 September Paper presented at the Narrative and Hypertext Workshop, Hypertext Retrieved 26 July Anna Faris and Naked women in Atwood Oklahoma woman problem". Posted November 8, San Diego City Beat. Archived from the original on 16 March Retrieved 15 August Unshakeable race and gender politics in The Walking Dead ". Triumph of The Walking Dead. Retrieved 15 September The Oxford Handbook of Feminist Theory.
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