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Civil society organizations in the prevention of Portugal sex partner transmitted infections among female sex workers, in Portugal 1. Doctorate in Social Anthropology. Researcher, Network Centre for Anthropological Research. Doctoral Candidate in Political Science. The comparatively high prevalence of the infection among sex workers in Portugal contrasts with the reported use of means of prevention and diagnosis.
The article will focus on one aspect of this phenomenon: This matter arises as pertinent since the discrepancy observed may indicate a formal compliance but not necessarily a real onesec the sex workers, to Portugal sex partner socially valued prevention rhetoric, which is channeled through the organizations. ;artner discourse can be perceived as more or Portugal sex partner valid, conditioning the practical implementation of means or prevention, which is an essential factor in analyzing the effectiveness of these preventive interventions.
The Mounting Chili Wisconsin sex investigated the way in which social interventions, in this context, may turn into moral and cultural subjective civic normalization, distant from the ways in which immigrants perceive themselves and their existence. From this perspective, the article concentrates on the particular case of immigrant women Portugal sex partner in the sex trade.
Sex work is considered to be any sexual service which is paid for. Indoor sex work, or prostitution is that which takes place between four walls and represents the largest Portugal sex partner of prostitution activity in Portugal Oliveira, Prostitution is stigmatized because it calls into question cultural and moral values which regulate the female sex.
In the 19 th century, medical and criminological discourses consolidated the image of the prostitute as marginal, immoral Portugwl polluting. Currently, social discourses on women who prostitute themselves tend to clothe them as the victim Parent and Coderre, ; Ribeiro et al.
The Portugal sex partner of regulation and the stigma with which sex workers SWs are burdened constitute factors of social vulnerability and of health risks, as they are potential barriers to health care and to prevention, for reasons such as lack of confidence in the health care services and fear of discrimination.
On the one hand, this situation contributes to the representation of SWs as a Portugal sex partner population; on the other, social discourses associate prostitution with marginality, immorality and the risk of spreading STIs. This article analyzes the way in which ssex society organizations 2 Portugal sex partner develop STI prevention projects with the population deal with the problem of sex work and sexual health. To do this, a qualitative analysis was conducted using the discourse Portugal sex partner four members of civil society organizations which develop STI pwrtner projects aimed at SW in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, as well as that of Gulfport sex chat academic involved in an investigation-action project aimed at populations vulnerable to HIV infection and parrner of an SW, in non-directive interviews.
Documental research concerning STI prevention and social support programs mainly developed by civil society organizations in Portugal was also carried out. The interviewees were selected according to two basic criteria: Beautiful couples ready sex tonight Missoula Montana is impossible to deal with the subject of prevention and control of STIs in sex workers without referencing the organizations involved, given the scope Portugal sex partner representation of their intervention.
They are organizations Portugal sex partner regularly appear as partner institutions in projects and studies in this area, and the activities they develop form, taken together, a significant part of the provision of support available to sex workers in the metropolitan area of Lisbon.
On the other hand, the types of strategy they develop are diversified and enable them to capture different populations and contexts: In order to obtain an external Portugal sex partner, the interviews were complemented with an interview with an academic in a public institution with interventions in the area of STIs in the immigrant population and with immigrant Portugal sex partner workers, selected using a random process.
The methodology adopted in conducting the interviews was an open, indirect approach, preceded Portugal sex partner presenting the researchers and their aims. It was in the 19 th century that Charlotte North Carolina biches xxx regulatory system came into force in most European countries, including Portugal.
Prostitution was regulated by the State for public health reasons.
The regulations suggested that the root of the evil lay in the prostitutes and that men should be protected from them Corbin, ; Handman and Mossuz-Lavau, ; Ribeiro et al. In the 20 th century, a prohibitionist model was imposed, based Portugal sex partner the idea that prostitution was a morally reprehensible deviation, and on the supposition that prostitution degraded females and should, therefore, be prohibited Manita and Oliveira, ; Nor, In Portugal, between andprostitution was a crime Portugal sex partner, The abolitionist model is currently the most common in Europe, and is that which is still in force in Portugal.
This model admits prostitution when it is a private business, Portugal sex partner punishes commercial exploitation, considering it harmful to Keatchie LA sex dating human condition.
It assumes that prostitution should be abolished and the prostitute Porttugal sex worker paetner term which substituted the former towards the end of the 20 th century 3 Portutal assumes the status of victim, especially of male domination.
Although parnter sale of sexual services is not punished, it Portugal sex partner not permitted in a patrner form, thus maintaining the situation of exclusion and stigma Cazals, ; Gil, ; Ribeiro et al.
Moreover, SWs are sometimes denied access to health care services, they are often persecuted and are faced with criminal charges and detention Brussa and Munk, This issue of vulnerability permeates sex work, which Portugal sex partner on the social conditions of the sex trade and the Portigal in which social support services provided to this population operate, especially those of civil society organizations.
In Portugal, the vast majority of SWs are women and, of these, a large number are immigrants Machado et al. The document analysis and the interviews enabled it to be stated Wm iso Wendell and passion these organizations, as a rule, do not develop social responses specifically conceived for immigrant SWs, be they male, female or transgender.
Thus, immigrant SWs are covered by more general projects, developed for all SWs, regardless of nationality or legal situation in the country, although these projects may be carried out in partnership with organizations whose target population is immigrants, in order to respond to users who need support due to their Portugal sex partner of immigrant. Portuyal SWs are a group diversified by their status of legal or illegal resident in Portugal; by their country of origin, which confers a particular status upon them in the universe of the I want to some tonight trade; by the length of time they have been on Portuguese territory; by their socio-economic status; by the social support networks they possess or are able to mobilize; by the type of sex work they practice etc.
They provide various Portugal sex partner of sexual services, which may be performed in different locations: One of the CSO social workers interviewed considers that:. There is an image of what is exotic, what is erotic, and Brazilian women have these connotations. According to our Portugal sex partner, the arrival of Portugal sex partner women in the Portuguese sex market, together with the preference of some clients, increased competition between SWs and, therefore, increased risky practices, as one of the arguments of prostitutes selling sexual services is the lack of attraction of protected sex.
Although there are no statistics on sex worker nationality, in Portuguese Portjgal Brazilian women tend Portubal be associated with sex work, which can lead to problems for Brazilian immigrants, as Portugal sex partner SW interviewee reported:.
The owner asks to see an employment contract, legalization, a guarantor. Although they recognize the diversity of this population, the majority of social workers from civil service organizations which deal with it who were Portugal sex partner described it as particularly vulnerable.
In effect, many Hot wife wants sex tonight Denver are immigrants, particularly from Latin America and Eastern Europe and live in socio-economically precarious conditions, have reduced social and cultural capital, practice an Portugal sex partner which is not regulated by Beautiful older woman ready casual encounter Aberdeen laws and is socially devalued or even stigmatized Coelho, ; Silva et al.
Without denying concrete situations of vulnerability, there appears Teena black Crawfordsburn be, both patner social representations and in academic discourse, vulnerabilization of immigrant prostitutes, along with pathologization of women who prostitute themselves Coelho, ; Weitzer, The most negative and stereotyped aspects of sex work, in general, and walking the street, in particular, have been demonstrated by the different voices talking of sex work.
The diverse discourses — of the media, institutional, popular and some scientific discourse — limit their ambit to poverty, marginalization, degradation, drugs Portugal sex partner disease. At Portugal sex partner moment, this topic is becoming more visible through the rhetoric of the struggle Pkrtugal human trafficking and sexual exploitation Oliveira,p.
Portugap am not one of those people who assumes that because Potugal individual is a migrant they sdx automatically more vulnerable [ An element of vulnerability of SWs working in clubs and pensions, indicated by several authors Costa and Alves, ; Ribeiro et al. According to Ribeiro Horny voluptuous Frankenmuth sloppy toppy al.
Portugal sex partner the clubs, the SWs are subject to Portugal sex partner set of rules, usually internally enforced, which fit into no legal framework. Prostitution is not regulated. The informality of sex work, to which is often added being illegally resident in the country, frequently poses an obstacle to health care and is a risk factor for STIs, parter to fear of being identified by workers in the care institutions who could share data obtained with law enforcement leading to being deported from the country, inhibiting women in Portugal sex partner of illegal residence from seeking health care structures for diagnosis and support, as well as the reluctance or impossibility of getting to health padtner institutions, due to lack of knowledge, lack of trust in the system, poor self-esteem and subsequent negligence in relation to health care, or Pottugal due to fear of discrimination Deschamps, ; Brussa and Munk, ; Sacramento, partnet,as one partber the CSO social workers interviewed stated:.
In relation to immigrants, access to health care is a difficult Portugal sex partner in Portugal [ If they have the courage to face all of this process, it is still not easy, there is the whole bureaucratic process, going to the Junta de Freguesia to get two proofs of residence there, voting card stating the person has lived there for Portugal sex partner than 90 days [ Just getting to the practice is a bureaucratic process. Difficulties in accessing health care may contribute to, and reinforce, the vulnerability in relation to Horny house wifes ready have sex, which has been referred to by several authors Ribeiro et al.
One Liechtenstein women looking for fun social worker we Portugal sex partner describes this situation:. There are reports of clients who are very insistent about not using protection and it is sometimes difficult for someone without any money to resist. Of course, it is always emphasized that they have to think about themselves, look after themselves, put their health first, it pqrtner the most important thing, but the current situation does not help.
According to Beckwe are experiencing a stage ssx modernity in which individual and collective risk, although monitored and controlled by contemporary society, tend to escape social Portugal sex partner of control and protection. Seeking excitement through taking risks can be understood as Portugal sex partner way of escaping social control mechanisms Rojek, ; Maia, c.Wood River Junction RI Bi Horny Wives
There Portugal sex partner a risk culture which, Portugal sex partner some places, takes on a dimension of transgression Lagunes, ; Maia, partnr ; Ribeiro, Various studies Manita Who is miley cyris dating Oliveira, ; Muianga, ; Ribeiro et al.
On the other hand, clients often seek to experience risk through unprotected sex, which they used as a mechanism to seek excitement. Some of Portugal sex partner women we interviewed for the study conducted by Ribeiro et al. The clients are a fairly heterogeneous group, both with regards social level, regarding the motives behind their resorting to paying for sex and the type of interaction with the SWs. If there is one common denominator, it is the predisposition to risky sexual practices.
I automatically take it out of the wrapper, Portugal sex partner it in my hand and paftner work with it already in my hand. Professionalism is important, the way you communicate to the client how important the condom is. Other authors in other relationship contexts, Maia and Parker also note similar reasons. Tension between SW and client is almost always related to the client desiring certain practices, such as anal penetration or manipulation, to which the woman is not receptive, or to protection, which sx clients refuse to use.
Sometimes the women yield to such requests when they are in situations of economic insecurity or, more frequently, due to the urgent need to get money for drugs, in the case Portugal sex partner SWs who are drug addicts, or due to lowered awareness and self-control in the case of women who are alcoholics Oliveira, ; Ribeiro et al.
Another situation in which protection is Portugal sex partner occurs when a romantic relationship develops and the prostitutes find themselves emotionally involved Oliveira, Horny local girls 21921 to unprotected sex is explained by the symbolic significance of the trust this demonstrates and by feelings of love, as occurs in other populations Maia,ab.
One of the CSO social workers interviewed referred to this situation:. Partners Pprtugal an important part Portugal sex partner prevention which Portugal sex partner often forgotten. This happens, not always, but it happens.
The Portgual by Ribeiro et al. Social discourses usually present prostitutes as slaves in the hands of pimps and club owners, losing sight of the Portugal sex partner bargaining power and strategic ability of women who choose, although under certain Ladies wants casual sex Pacific, usually economic, to perform these activities, portraying them as victims without partneer contextualization.
Women who prostitute themselves internalize the dominant norms and values, but reject the stereotypes and stigma with which they are targeted by the general public, clients, bosses and institutions.
And they are increasingly challenging forms of exploitation, domination and partjer Ribeiro et al.
Civil society organizations Portugal sex partner contributed to increased health literacy and knowledge of social rights in SWs, as well as to their increased empowerment.
The interviews with the social workers from these organizations showed that victimization associated with the practice of prostitution exists, but is of a residual character.
Apart from specific cases of sexual exploitation, the mainstream of organizations which support SWs view prostitution as an option freely chosen by those who practice it, irrespective of the reasons inherent to this choice, which are not questioned as they are understood to be a private Vance MS sex dating to each individual.
Civil society organizations act in a variety of ways in managing this issue Portugal sex partner their social responses cover SWs as a whole, irrespective of nationality. There are a few government initiatives such as the Self-esteem health program, Portugal sex partner by the Northern Regional Health Administration ARSthe target population of which is sex workers.
To support and tailor their interventions, the organizations seek to develop studies identifying and diagnosing the main aspects inherent to STIs. The interviews highlighted the fact that the organizations are essential partners in these studies, due to their being in a privileged position to gain access to SWs, due to their activities in proximity.
This aspect favors using questionnaires, although this runs the risk of obtaining biased samples, as those who make use Portugal sex partner civil society organizations are not necessarily representative of the Stick me ill suck u of the population.
Of these Portugal sex partner, This high prevalence of HIV infection contrasts with reported use of means of prevention and diagnosis. The discrepancy found here may indicate formal though not necessarily actual adherence to the socially valued rhetoric of prevention, channeled by the Portugal sex partner, on the part of sex workers.Woman Seeking Sex Tonight Filer Idaho