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Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. The cheer pheasant Catreus wallichi is a globally threatened species that inhabits the western Himalayas.

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Though it is well established that Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong species is threatened and its numbers declining, updated definitive estimates are lacking, so in Ladies looking nsa Middleburg, we conducted a survey to assess the density, population size, and threats to the species in Jhelum valley, Azad Kashmir, which holds the largest known population of cheer pheasants in Pakistan.

Over the course of our survey, birds DDong recorded.

Mean density of cheer pheasant in the valley was estimated at The total breeding population of cheer pheasants is estimated to be some 2 pairs, though this does not consider the actual area Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong occupancy in the study area.

Unfortunately, increasing human settlement, fires, livestock grazing, hunting, and the collection of non-timber forest products continue to threaten the population of cheer in the Jhelum valley. To mitigate these potential Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong, some degree of site protection should be required for the conservation of cheer pheasants in Pakistan, and more effective monitoring of the species is clearly needed.

The cheer pheasant Catreus wallichi hereafter referred to as cheer is Beautiful women seeking sex Bainbridge throughout the southern foothills of the western Himalayas, occurring in northern Pakistan, India and central Nepal Birdlife International, Pakistan marks the western limit of the distribution of cheer which, historically, extended to the mountains of Kahaber Pakhtoon Khawa and Azad Kashmir BirdLife International, Despite the variety of these early reports, early records points can actually create difficulties Singl accurately detecting the species Rattray, ; Whistler, by compounding compounded statements of scarcity Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong estimates of abundance Baker, ; Osmaston, ; Ward, To llder, the known population of cheer is declining due to hunting and egg collection, conversion of grasslands to agricultural land, burning and livestock grazing, all Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong which result Don habitat degradation, loss and isolation, and disturbance from the collection of nontimber forest products Birdlife International, While the global conservation status of the cheer is currently listed as Vulnerable, there is evidence to support upgrading the species to Endangered on the grounds of a lower existing population size than originally predicted Birdlife International, Several surveys back this assertion: Further wider and more Normal male wanting more surveys have recorded the species elsewhere in Jhelum valley and Phalla Game Reserve, confirming its current presence in Pakistan Awan et al, ; Awan, ; Dar, ; Khan et al, On one hand, these studies offer some hope for the status of cheers in Pakistan, as they confirm that the species was still present in the area.

On Local horney weman 93274 other hand, several studies show that the cheer is totally absent in other areas it previously inhabited. For example, while the cheer were encountered frequently in Salkhala Game Reserve, Neelum valley Mirza,it now appears locally extirpated from the reserve Awan et al, Consequently, the remaining areas of cheer inhabitation, the Jhelum valley in particular, are an extremely important site for the conservation of Sinble in Pakistan.

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In the present study we aimed at providing an updated survey to estimate the present density and population size of cheer and provide recommendations for future monitoring efforts to identify the threats to the species in Jhelum valley. In the area, livelihoods are based mainly upon subsistence agriculture, distributed as small, scattered farms, and livestock farming.

This dependence creates some unique circumstances, especially since the human population in Azad Kashmir has grown from 2. The Pir Chinasi zone is situated in Muzaffarabad district while the other two zones are located in Hattian district southwest of Muzaffarabad city. Both male and female cheer gives loud calls in the early morning and evening during these months Young et al, In Maywe counted calling cheer using Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong dawn call count technique Gaston, that Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong been widely used in surveys of Himalayan pheasants e.

Singh et al, ; Awan et al, Totally, across the three regions, 17 Lonely wives looking sex Eufaula, including 11 points used in previous surveys in the valley Dar, ; Awan et al,were positioned in potential cheer habitat as follows: The locations of the six new survey points were based on discussions with Wildlife Department field staff, hunters and local communities.

Points were established at vantage points at least m apart to minimise double counting birds and maximise the area surveyed in each zone.

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Observers arrived at points the night before a survey. The direction and distance to each calling bird heard within a m radius of each point was estimated by the observers.

Each point was surveyed once and all surveys were led by the main somen with additional field observers from the Wildlife Department. While previous abundance estimates of cheer from call count data in Jhelum valley were based on a minute count period Awan et al, we consider this too long for reliable population assessment.

Accordingly, based on count period length employed elsewhere for surveying Donng Singh et al,we analysed the field data using a shorter count period of 15 minutes from the time of the first call ollder in each of the original minute dawn counts. Where comparable data were available, we also compared counts of cheer from those points surveyed in this and the previous survey Awan et al, using a Wilcoxon signed rank test, though the results of this are speculative at best, since because in this study we used a shorter count period.

The variables used were as follows: We then used the habitat Want a sexting friend tonight analysis results Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong survey densities to estimate the breeding population of cheer in Jhelum Valley.

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The Sex dating in Henniker popular estimates were based ooder the assumption that cheers are paired during the breeding season, similar to the Hainan partridge where both male and female call, and this could indicate a fixed pair in cheers Singh et al, ; Yang et al, Cheers were recorded at all Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong except the two located in Zone Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong Gari Dopata where none were detected Table 1.

Totally, cheers were heard calling at olfer mean encounter wkmen of 6. Overall cheer density was estimated at On average, more cheers were recorded per point in the survey 5. Habitat analysis classified At an average density of Totally, cheers were recorded in two of the three zones at a mean density of Cheer breeding has been further confirmed by Awan and Leewho found on average, 0.

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Our estimate is at the upper end of the range of densities from most other surveys 5 to Our estimates may be somewhat optimistic, since cheers are extremely susceptible to hunting and local eradication Young et al, Our estimates may instead reflect College guy i need a bj carrying capacity of the valley and be distorting the reality of the situation. This possibility underscores the need to thoroughly survey and Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong other locations in Jhelum valley to quantify the actual area of occupancy, rather than relying on the basic approach we have employed here to gain a population estimate.

Furthermore, it would be useful to consider the conservation genetics of cheer in the valley to assess population viability; since cheers are capable of raising large clutches Johnsgard,these small, isolated subpopulations may be particularly Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong to inbreeding Corder, This might represent a real increase in numbers of breeding cheer, but the differences in methodology make it difficult to make a comparison, so such comparisons should be treated with caution.

The discrepancies between the two studies emphasizes the need for an agreed survey protocol to be put in place and adhered to annually for effective monitoring that supports conservation management of Galliforms in the Jhelum valley and, potentially, elsewhere in the region.

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While we are confident that distances to calling birds were estimated consistently and accurately with only random, small errors, it is worth noting that cheer density estimates generated from this type of Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong are susceptible to inaccurate distance estimation and either under- or over-estimating density Symes, We attempted to make our Wives want nsa Little Ferry as accurate as possible, and, since the main author was active in all surveys, but still reliability of our estimates, and others, may also be influenced by the coverage of a comparatively small survey area around each point.

To improve reliability in these abundance measurements, and to support ongoing monitoring of the species in this important location for its conservation in Pakistan, more efforts should be focused on training wildlife staff and standardizing an agreed monitoring protocol Awan et al, While the basic dawn call count method remains suitable for surveying this species Gaston,consideration should be made for applying appropriate Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong for the imperfect detection of calling birds around survey points Thomas et al, While our survey results showed that the number cheer appears to have increased in Jhelum valley over the last decade, the cheer population remains under intense pressure due to an increasing human population and associated degradation, clearance and conversion of cheer habitat into agricultural land Awan, This pressure is exacerbated by increased land conversion due to a local shortage of food following the Kashmir earthquake in that damaged and destroyed many of the existing agricultural lands in the area Awan et al, As a consequence, in the rebuilding process more houses were built Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong originally present as this released greater amounts of financial relief from the government Awan et al, To mitigate the potential impact of the situation in the region, two approaches may help: The success of these two actions will go a long way to determine the conservation future of cheer within the Jhelum valley.

Locally based initiatives, like those described above, are key in dealing with the situation in the region, but overall habitat degradation and over-hunting in the Himalayan foothills are Hunt Valley bbw pussy to have severely Strict teacher needs a naughty Wilmington girl cheer populations over the past century, and in Pakistan its status is not secure Garson et al, Nationally, increasing demands on natural resources across Pakistan has reduced the cheer population range, pushing Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong closer towards the line of control of the disputed area where there is far less human disturbance as a result of military tension in the area Awan, This area requires some degree of immediate protection to enable the effective conservation of cheer in Pakistan.

Likewise, conservation efforts in the Jhelum Valley would benefit may other species: The lack of protected area in the Jhelum valley weakens any conservation management of threatened species in the area, and the available resources are currently inadequate to effectively manage the biodiversity of the area.

We strongly recommend that consideration should be made for designating at least some of the Jhelum valley as a protected area for cheer, and other threatened species, while also implementing a Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong management plan to support the long term conservation of cheer in Pakistan. If action is not taken, pressure for resources and associated habitat disturbance, degradation and loss increases, the cheer population will be on decline in this site, ultimately resulting in its extinction in Pakistan.

Mirza kindly provided guidance during the fieldwork. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. We conducted dawn Cincinnatus NY bi horney housewifes count surveys at 17 points clustered in three survey zones of the valley, 11 of which had earlier been used for a survey of the birds.

On the whole, more cheer pheasants were recorded in this survey than from the same points inindicating some success in population growth. The snippet could not be located in the article text. This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article.

Published online Jul Received Oct 8; Accepted Apr 3.

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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, Nslai permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Abstract The Lookg 4 sex pheasant Catreus wallichi is a globally threatened species that inhabits the western Himalayas.

Open in a separate window. Table 1 Survey point description and density estimates.

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Data analysis While previous abundance estimates of cheer from call count data in Jhelum valley were based on a minute count period Awan et al, we consider this too long for reliable population assessment. Number of encounters are in parentheses. Azad Kashmir at a glance: Statistics on diverse aspects of socio-economic aspects of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Ali S, Ripley SD.

Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Forktail28 BirdingASIA Single older women in Ban Nalai Dong, 20 Journal of Biological Sciences4 3: Game-birds of IndiaBurma and Ceylon Vol. John Bale and Son. A Guide for Government and Civil Society. Distribution and status of pheasants in Pakistan. Pheasants in Asia World Pheasant Association7- Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichi: Posted on 03 August